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Facebook Filed A Patent To Calculate Your Future Location


https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/nicolenguyen/facebook-location-data-prediction-patent

A May 30, 2017, Facebook application titled "Offline Trajectories" describes a method to predict where you'll go next based on your location data. The technology described in the patent would calculate a "transition probability based at least in part on previously logged location data associated with a plurality of users who were at the current location." In other words, the technology could also use the data of other people you know, as well as that of strangers, to make predictions. If the company could predict when you are about to be in an offline area, Facebook content "may be prefetched so that the user may have access to content during the period where there is a lack of connectivity."

Another Facebook patent application titled "Location Prediction Using Wireless Signals on Online Social Networks" describes how tracking the strength of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, and near-field communication (NFC) signals could be used to estimate your current location, in order to anticipate where you will go next. This "background signal" information is used as an alternative to GPS because, as the patent describes, it may provide "the advantage of more accurately or precisely determining a geographic location of a user." The technology could learn the category of your current location (e.g., bar or gym), the time of your visit to the location, the hours that entity is open, and the popular hours of the entity.

Yet another Facebook patent application, "Predicting Locations and Movements of Users Based on Historical Locations for Users of an Online System," further details how location data from multiple people would be used to glean location and movement trends and to model location chains. According to the patent application, these could be used for a "variety of applications," including "advertising to users based on locations and for providing insights into the movements of users." The technology could even differentiate movement trends among people who live in a city and who are just visiting a city.

#privacy #tracking #fbevil #facebook #social #patent #mass-surveillance #quit-facebook

 
Bild/Foto

#Macron balance des miettes


Le 10 décembre, Macron a pris la parole dans son palais, devant son grand bureau de bois verni et doré. Son objectif était d’éteindre la colère sociale qui bouillonne dans la rue depuis quatre semaines. Mais le président des patrons n’est pas prêt à lâcher et il va falloir encore augmenter la pression, par la grève et les blocages, pour qu’il finisse par plier : https://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Macron-balance-des-miettes

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #Social #Communiqué #Politique

 
Nextcloud 15 bietet Social-Media-App und bessere Zwei-Faktor-Authentifizierung #CollaboraOnline #Nextcloud15 #Sicherheit #Social #Zwei-Faktor-Authentifizierung

 

Lycéen.nes, étudiant.es, c’est aussi notre #lutte !


Un peu partout en France, la même #colère, la même détermination et la même volonté de ne pas se laisser faire. Partout, des manifs sauvages qui défient la police. Partout des routes bloquées et des travailleur.ses en grève. Cette révolte qui traverse le pays, c’est aussi celle des lycén.nes et des étudiant.es. Nous aussi, le gouvernement nous attaque ! Dans les facs, de plus en plus d’assemblées générales, tandis que les blocus de lycées se multiplient. Continuons à nous organiser et amplifions notre #mobilisation pour lutter au côté des travailleur.ses contre l’État et les patrons : https://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Lyceen-nes-etudiant-es-c-est-aussi-notre-lutte

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #Social

 
Was ist nun dieses Nextcloud Social genau?
Ein Client?
Ein Pod etc?
Kann ich damit Dateien teilen?

#Nextcloud #Social #Internet

 
- #Nextcloud #introduces #social #features, #joins the #fediverse



Today, Nextcloud 15 has been made available. As there is so much new and improved in this release, we have dedicated separate blogs to each main area of improvement. This blog covers a preview of the the brand new Nextcloud Social app, introducing social networking to Nextcloud.
https://nextcloud.com/blog/nextcloud-introduces-social-features-joins-the-fediverse/

 

#Marseille : La #CGT organise trois jours de #mobilisation


C’est maintenant qu’il faut démultiplier les initiatives ! La #colère est descendue sur le pavé, il faut tenter de la généraliser avec l’ensemble des salariés : 13, 14 et 15 décembre TOUS EN #GRÈVE : http://www.communisteslibertairescgt.org/Marseille-L-UD-organise-trois-jours-de-mobilisation.html

#Social

 
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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
We accommodated with our audience already ages to ensure that they accept a complete compassionate of Social media Marketing and to advance strategies for the advancing months. We specialize in growing our audience social-media accounts by creating agreeable and implementing strategies. An actual able apparatus for avant-garde day marketing, we accept implemented influence Social media marketing agency Melbourne that accept helped bear our audience’s results. We accept avant-garde advance bearing software that enables our audience to accept balmy leads for them to act on.

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onpointdigitalsolutions: Social Media Marketing Melbourne | Social Media Agency Melbourne (jv)


 
Bild/Foto

#Retraites : Seront-elles réduites d’un tiers ?


Lors de la campagne présidentielle, Macron avait claironné le principe selon lequel il voulait refaçonner le système de retraites  : «  Un euro cotisé donnera les mêmes droits pour tous.  » La formule peut paraître juste… vue de loin. Elle renvoie en réalité à un système tout ce qu’il y a de plus inégalitaire  : la retraite par points : https://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Retraites-Seront-elles-reduites-d-un-tiers

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #Social

 

#GiletsJaunes - Qui sème la misère récolte la colère


Un peu partout en France, la même #colère, la même détermination et la même volonté de ne pas se laisser faire. Partout, des cortèges sauvages qui défient l’encadrement policier. Partout, des manifestantes et manifestants qui expriment leur #rage face à la #répression : https://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Gilets-jaunes-Qui-seme-la-misere-recolte-la-colere

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #Politique #Social

 

Social Media: Konsumenten stehen Facebook misstrauisch gegenüber


#facebook #gegenüber #konsumenten #media #misstrauisch #nachrichten #news #pbs #social #stehen

 

#Édito : L’épaisseur des #révoltes


Les raccourcis sont toujours confortables. Ainsi les gilets jaunes ne seraient qu’un ramassis de « fachos » et de « beaufs ». Biberonné.es à une lecture simplifiée de l’histoire révolutionnaire, certaines et certains aimeraient que la réalité soit aussi simple : https://www.alternativelibertaire.org/?Edito-L-epaisseur-des-revoltes

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #GiletsJaunes #Social

 

#Édito : L’épaisseur des #révoltes


Les raccourcis sont toujours confortables. Ainsi les gilets jaunes ne seraient qu’un ramassis de « fachos » et de « beaufs ». Biberonné.es à une lecture simplifiée de l’histoire révolutionnaire, certaines et certains aimeraient que la réalité soit aussi simple : alternativelibertaire.org/?Edi

#AL #AlternativeLibertaire #GiletsJaunes #Social

 

Ocasio-Cortez slams critics on social media, attacks Pres. Trump


Bild/Foto

#alexandria ocasio-cortez #attacks #cortez #critics #media #new york #oan newsroom #ocasio #pres #president trump #slams #social #trump #twitter
posted by pod_feeder
Ocasio-Cortez slams critics on social media, attacks Pres. Trump

 

Ocasio-Cortez slams critics on social media, attacks Pres. Trump


Bild/Foto

#alexandriaocasiocortez #attacks #cortez #critics #media #newyork #oannewsroom #ocasio #pres #presidenttrump #slams #social #trump #twitter
posted by pod_feeder
Ocasio-Cortez slams critics on social media, attacks Pres. Trump

 

China blacklists millions from booking flights as 'social credit' introduced


Officials say aim is to make it ‘difficult to move’ for those deemed ‘untrustworthy’
Article word count: 29

HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18515909
Posted by apatters (karma: 2252)
Post stats: Points: 110 - Comments: 59 - 2018-11-23T11:56:16Z

\#HackerNews #blacklists #booking #china #credit #flights #from #introduced #millions #social
Article content:




Lebanese army soldiers march during a parade to mark the 75th anniversary of Lebanonʼs Independence Day, in Beirut, commemorating the liberation from the French Mandate on 22 November 1943
Indian Muslim devotees wave flags as they parade atop vehicles along a street during Eid-Milad-Un-Nabi celebrations in Varanasi in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
At least 50 people were killed and dozens more injured when a suicide bomber targeted a group of Muslim religious scholars in Kabul, officials in Afghanistan say. Hundreds of clerics had gathered to mark the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed at a large wedding hall in the capital before the blast happened, interior ministry spokesman Najib Danish said. Wahi Majroh, of Afghanistan’s public health ministry, said a further 83 people had been wounded by the bomber. “The victims of the attack unfortunately are all religious scholars who gathered to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad,” said Basir Mujahid, spokesman for the Kabul police chief
A view of the Fuego volcano eruption at sunrise, seen from El Rodeo, Escuintla, Guatemala. More than 2,000 people were evacuated from several villages due to the strong eruption, located 50 kilometers west of the Guatemalan capital
French President Emmanuel Macron is applauded after speaking before the Bundestag (lower house of parliament) as the German parliament commemorates victims of wars and dictatorships in Berlin. The leaders of France and Germany jointly remember the victims of European wars, presenting also a united front in countering global turmoil stoked by US President Donald Trump
People wearing yellow vests, a symbol of a French driversʼ nationwide protest against higher fuel prices, block the Paris-Brussels motorway in Haulchin, France
People hold banners of Jamal Khashoggi during a symbolic funeral prayer for the Saudi journalist, killed and dismembered in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in October, at the courtyard of Fatih mosque in Istanbul. Turkey has more evidence contradicting the Saudi version of the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi including a second audio recording, revealing that the murder had been premeditated, a Turkish newspaper reported on November 16, a contradiction to the statement of the Saudi prosecutor who said that five Saudi officials faced the death penalty on charges of killing Khashoggi but exonerated the countryʼs powerful Crown Prince of involvement in the murder
Alexei Navalny leaves the European Court of Human Rights today. The court has ruled that Russiaʼs repeated arrests of Navalny were politically motivated
A crew member escorts a migrant child out of a plane transporting a group of 51 migrants from Niger, entitled to international protection, after its landing at the Mario De Bernardi military airport in Pratica di Mare, south of Rome
Palestinians gather in front of damaged buildings in Gaza City following Israeli air strikes targeting the area overnight. Israelʼs aircraft struck Gaza on November 12, killing three Palestinians and wounding nine after a barrage of rocket fire into its territory from the enclave. The flare-up came after a deadly Israeli special forces operation in the Gaza Strip, at the weekend, that left Hamas vowing revenge
Floral tributes outside Melbourneʼs Pellegriniʼs Cafe for Sisto Malaspina, after he was stabbed to death last Friday in an attack police have called an act of terrorism, in Australia
Heads of states and world leaders attend ceremonies at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Over 60 heads of state and government were taking part in a solemn ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the mute and powerful symbol of sacrifice to the millions who died from 1914-18
Firefighters push down a wall while battling against a burning apartment complex in Paradise, north of Sacramento, California. A rapidly spreading, late-season wildfire in northern California has burned 20,000 acres of land and prompted authorities to issue evacuation orders for thousands of people. As many as 1000 homes, a hospital, a Safeway store and scores of other structures have burned in the area as the Camp fire tore through the region
A Fly Jamaica plane en route to Toronto crash lands at an airport in Guyana following a technical problem. At least six passengers were injured
An FBI agent talks to a potential witness as they stand near the scene Thursday in Thousand Oaks, California. where a gunman opened fire Wednesday inside a country dance bar crowded with hundreds of people on "college night," wounding 11 people including a deputy who rushed to the scene. Ventura County sheriffʼs spokesman says gunman is dead inside the bar.
Democratic congressional candidate Ilhan Omar is celebrates with her husbandʼs mother after she won a congress place during the US midterm elections. In doing do she became the first-joint Muslim woman to be elected into congress alongside Rashida Tlaib
Voters cast their ballots at the Tuttle Park Recreation Center polling location in Columbus, Ohio. Across the US, voters headed to the polls in one of the most high-profile midterm elections in years
Members of the group Your Vote Matters encourage people to vote before an event hosted by US Senator Claire McCaskill as she campaigns for the US Senate in Saint Louis, Missour. McCaskill, a Democrat, faces a challenge from Republican Missouri Attorney General Josh Hawley in the November general election
Police officers and rescuers work at the site of where a truck ploughed into cars at a toll booth in Lanzhou in Chinaʼs northwestern Gansu province. The out-of-control truck crashed into a 31-car lineup and killed 15 people, with 44 injured
Simone Biles on the podium with her gold medal from the floor exercise at the gymnastics world championships. She became the most decorated female gymnast in worldʼs history, as well as, becoming the first American to win a medal in every event at the competition
A Salvadorean migrant with a girl walks next to Guatemalan policemen as they approach the Guatemala-Mexico international border bridge in Ciudad Tecun Uman. Accoring to the Salvadorean General Migration Directorate, over 1,700 Salvadoreans left the country in two caravans and entered Guatemala Wednesday, in an attempt to reach the US
Google employees hold signs outside 14th street park after walking out as part of a global protest over claims of sexual harassment, gender inequality and systemic racism at the tech giant
The "Statue of Unity" portraying Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of the founding fathers of India, during its inauguration in Kevadia, in the western state of Gujarat, India
A scavenger collects recyclable materials along the breakwater amid strong waves as weather patterns from Typhoon Yutu affect Manila Bay. Fierce winds sheared off roofs and snapped trees in half, after thousands were evacuated ahead of the powerful stormʼs arrival
Rescue team members collecting the remains of the crashed plane at Tanjung Priok Harbour, Indonesia. A Lion Air flight JT-610 lost contact with air traffic controllers soon after takeoff then crashed into the sea. The flight was en route to Pangkal Pinang, and reportedly had 189 people onboard
A supporter of Workersʼ Party presidential candidate Fernando Haddad embraces a fellow weeping supporter, after learning that rival Jair Bolsonaro was declared the winner in the Brazil presidential runoff election. Addressing supporters in Sao Paulo, Haddad did not concede or even mention Bolsonaro by name. Instead, his speech was a promise to resist
First responders surround the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, where a shooter opened fire, wounding three police officers and killing eleven
Broward County Sheriffʼs office have released a photo of Cesar Sayoc, the suspect who was arrested in connection with the pipe bombs that have been sent to several high profile Democrats and critics of President Trump over the course of this week
East Island in Hawaii has been swallowed by the sea following Hurricane Walaka
Police officers stand outside the home of former President Bill Clinton and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton after a "functional explosive device" was attemptedly delivered to the couple
Turkeyʼs President Erdogan today accused Saudi Arabia of plotting the ʼsavageʼ murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi
Australiaʼs Prime Minister Scott Morrison (C) delivers a national apology to child sex abuse victims in the House of Representatives in Parliament House in Canberra on October 22, 2018. - Morrison on October 22 issued an emotive apology to children who suffered sexual abuse, saying the state had failed to protect them from "evil dark" crimes committed over decades
A derailed train in Yian, eastern Taiwan. At least 17 people died after the derailment
US President Donald Trump waves as he boards Marine One after a "Make America Great" rally in Mesa, Arizona on October 19, 2018. - US President Donald Trump said Friday, October 19, 2018, that he found credible Saudi Arabiaʼs assertion that dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi died as a result of a fight
A Palestinian youth runs past a rolling burning tire during clashes with Israeli forces following a demonstration after the weekly Friday prayers, in the centre of the occupied West Bank city of Hebron
Honduran migrants heading in a caravan to the United States, leave Guatemala City. US President Donald Trump threatened to send the military to close its southern border if Mexico fails to stem the "onslaught" of migrants from Central America, in a series of tweets that blamed Democrats ahead of the midterm elections
Smoke billows following an Israeli air strike around the southern Gaza Strip city of Rafah. Israel launched raids against targets in the Gaza strip in response to rocket fire from the Palestinian territory that caused damage in a southern city, the Israeli army said
Ecuador has issued a list of rules to Julian Assange, the famous resident of the Ecuadorian Embassy in London. The list included cleaning the bathroom, not commenting on foreign political affairs online and taking better care of his cat (pictured). The document states that failure to comply with these rules “could lead to the termination of the diplomatic asylum granted by the Ecuadorian state”
Israeli soldiers hurl tear gas grenades during clashes following Israeli order to shut down the al-Lubban/al-Sawiyeh school near the west bank city of Nablus, 15 October 2018. According to local sources, 20 Palestinians were wounded during clashes as dozens try to defiance the Israeli order to shut down the school
Serbiaʼs Novak Djokovic kisses the trophy after winning his menʼs final singles match against Croatiaʼs Borna Coric at the Shanghai Masters. Djokovic, who has now won four titles this season, will move up one ranking spot to No. 2, pushing Roger Federer back to No. 3
Demonstrators raising red painted hands and a placard reading "we must change the system not the climate" referring to the need to stop climate change during a march in Bordeaux, southwestern France
Spanish Unionist demonstrators carry Spanish flags during a demonstration on Spainʼs National Day in Barcelona
Russia has halted all crewed space flights following the failed launch of the Soyuz MS-10 rocket (pictured). Investigations in to the rocketʼs malfunction are ongoing
People look on at a damaged store after Hurricane Michael passed through Panama City, Florida. A Category 4 storm, with maximum sustained winds of 155 mph, was the most powerful storm ever to hit the Florida Panhandle
The Darul Muttaqien Mosque was the heart of the community for many in Palu. A lot of the victims were inside their homes or at the mosque when the quake struck. Magareb prayer for many, was their last. Paddy Dowling travelled with UK based charity Muslim Aid to the disaster areas of North Sulawesi to witness the scale of Indonesia’s earthquake & tsunami. They are the only British NGO delivering aid out in Palu through local partners
People take part in a candle-light vigil in memory of Bulgarian TV journalist Viktoria Marinova in Ruse
Supporters of Jair Bolsonaro, presidential candidate with the Social Liberal Party, celebrate in front of his house during the general elections in Rio. The far-right congressman, who waxes nostalgically about the dictatorship, won the vote but not an outright victory. The second-round-run-off will be between Bolsoanro and the leftist Workersʼ party Fernando Haddad
Demonstrators hold a banner that reads "freedom of the press, not allowed to be trampled" and "shame on the governments vindictive move" past a symbolic ʼpolitical red lineʼ during a protest after Hong Kong immigration authorities declined a visa renewal for senior Financial Times journalist Victor Mallet, outside the immigration department building in Hong Kong. Hong Kongʼs decision to effectively blacklist a senior Financial Times journalist required an "urgent explanation", the UK said
Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege and Yazidi campaigner Nadia Murad announced as the winners of the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize. The pair were awarded the honour “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.”
Dutch security services expel Russian spies over plot targeting chemical weapons watchdog. This picture shows the four GRU officers who entered the Netherlands at Amsterdamʼs Schiphol Airport on April 10, travelling on official Russian passports. On April 13 they parked a car carrying specialist hacking equipment outside the headquarters of the OPCW in The Hague. At that point the Dutch counter-terrorism officers intervened to disrupt the operation and the four GRU officers were ordered to leave the country
Lebanese army soldiers march during a parade to mark the 75th anniversary of Lebanonʼs Independence Day, in Beirut, commemorating the liberation from the French Mandate on 22 November 1943
Indian Muslim devotees wave flags as they parade atop vehicles along a street during Eid-Milad-Un-Nabi celebrations in Varanasi in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
At least 50 people were killed and dozens more injured when a suicide bomber targeted a group of Muslim religious scholars in Kabul, officials in Afghanistan say. Hundreds of clerics had gathered to mark the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed at a large wedding hall in the capital before the blast happened, interior ministry spokesman Najib Danish said. Wahi Majroh, of Afghanistan’s public health ministry, said a further 83 people had been wounded by the bomber. “The victims of the attack unfortunately are all religious scholars who gathered to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad,” said Basir Mujahid, spokesman for the Kabul police chief
A view of the Fuego volcano eruption at sunrise, seen from El Rodeo, Escuintla, Guatemala. More than 2,000 people were evacuated from several villages due to the strong eruption, located 50 kilometers west of the Guatemalan capital
French President Emmanuel Macron is applauded after speaking before the Bundestag (lower house of parliament) as the German parliament commemorates victims of wars and dictatorships in Berlin. The leaders of France and Germany jointly remember the victims of European wars, presenting also a united front in countering global turmoil stoked by US President Donald Trump
People wearing yellow vests, a symbol of a French driversʼ nationwide protest against higher fuel prices, block the Paris-Brussels motorway in Haulchin, France
People hold banners of Jamal Khashoggi during a symbolic funeral prayer for the Saudi journalist, killed and dismembered in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul in October, at the courtyard of Fatih mosque in Istanbul. Turkey has more evidence contradicting the Saudi version of the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi including a second audio recording, revealing that the murder had been premeditated, a Turkish newspaper reported on November 16, a contradiction to the statement of the Saudi prosecutor who said that five Saudi officials faced the death penalty on charges of killing Khashoggi but exonerated the countryʼs powerful Crown Prince of involvement in the murder
Alexei Navalny leaves the European Court of Human Rights today. The court has ruled that Russiaʼs repeated arrests of Navalny were politically motivated
A crew member escorts a migrant child out of a plane transporting a group of 51 migrants from Niger, entitled to international protection, after its landing at the Mario De Bernardi military airport in Pratica di Mare, south of Rome
Palestinians gather in front of damaged buildings in Gaza City following Israeli air strikes targeting the area overnight. Israelʼs aircraft struck Gaza on November 12, killing three Palestinians and wounding nine after a barrage of rocket fire into its territory from the enclave. The flare-up came after a deadly Israeli special forces operation in the Gaza Strip, at the weekend, that left Hamas vowing revenge
Floral tributes outside Melbourneʼs Pellegriniʼs Cafe for Sisto Malaspina, after he was stabbed to death last Friday in an attack police have called an act of terrorism, in Australia
Heads of states and world leaders attend ceremonies at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Over 60 heads of state and government were taking part in a solemn ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the mute and powerful symbol of sacrifice to the millions who died from 1914-18
Firefighters push down a wall while battling against a burning apartment complex in Paradise, north of Sacramento, California. A rapidly spreading, late-season wildfire in northern California has burned 20,000 acres of land and prompted authorities to issue evacuation orders for thousands of people. As many as 1000 homes, a hospital, a Safeway store and scores of other structures have burned in the area as the Camp fire tore through the region
A Fly Jamaica plane en route to Toronto crash lands at an airport in Guyana following a technical problem. At least six passengers were injured
An FBI agent talks to a potential witness as they stand near the scene Thursday in Thousand Oaks, California. where a gunman opened fire Wednesday inside a country dance bar crowded with hundreds of people on "college night," wounding 11 people including a deputy who rushed to the scene. Ventura County sheriffʼs spokesman says gunman is dead inside the bar.
Democratic congressional candidate Ilhan Omar is celebrates with her husbandʼs mother after she won a congress place during the US midterm elections. In doing do she became the first-joint Muslim woman to be elected into congress alongside Rashida Tlaib
Voters cast their ballots at the Tuttle Park Recreation Center polling location in Columbus, Ohio. Across the US, voters headed to the polls in one of the most high-profile midterm elections in years
Members of the group Your Vote Matters encourage people to vote before an event hosted by US Senator Claire McCaskill as she campaigns for the US Senate in Saint Louis, Missour. McCaskill, a Democrat, faces a challenge from Republican Missouri Attorney General Josh Hawley in the November general election
Police officers and rescuers work at the site of where a truck ploughed into cars at a toll booth in Lanzhou in Chinaʼs northwestern Gansu province. The out-of-control truck crashed into a 31-car lineup and killed 15 people, with 44 injured
Simone Biles on the podium with her gold medal from the floor exercise at the gymnastics world championships. She became the most decorated female gymnast in worldʼs history, as well as, becoming the first American to win a medal in every event at the competition
A Salvadorean migrant with a girl walks next to Guatemalan policemen as they approach the Guatemala-Mexico international border bridge in Ciudad Tecun Uman. Accoring to the Salvadorean General Migration Directorate, over 1,700 Salvadoreans left the country in two caravans and entered Guatemala Wednesday, in an attempt to reach the US
Google employees hold signs outside 14th street park after walking out as part of a global protest over claims of sexual harassment, gender inequality and systemic racism at the tech giant
The "Statue of Unity" portraying Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of the founding fathers of India, during its inauguration in Kevadia, in the western state of Gujarat, India
A scavenger collects recyclable materials along the breakwater amid strong waves as weather patterns from Typhoon Yutu affect Manila Bay. Fierce winds sheared off roofs and snapped trees in half, after thousands were evacuated ahead of the powerful stormʼs arrival
Rescue team members collecting the remains of the crashed plane at Tanjung Priok Harbour, Indonesia. A Lion Air flight JT-610 lost contact with air traffic controllers soon after takeoff then crashed into the sea. The flight was en route to Pangkal Pinang, and reportedly had 189 people onboard
A supporter of Workersʼ Party presidential candidate Fernando Haddad embraces a fellow weeping supporter, after learning that rival Jair Bolsonaro was declared the winner in the Brazil presidential runoff election. Addressing supporters in Sao Paulo, Haddad did not concede or even mention Bolsonaro by name. Instead, his speech was a promise to resist
First responders surround the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, where a shooter opened fire, wounding three police officers and killing eleven
Broward County Sheriffʼs office have released a photo of Cesar Sayoc, the suspect who was arrested in connection with the pipe bombs that have been sent to several high profile Democrats and critics of President Trump over the course of this week
East Island in Hawaii has been swallowed by the sea following Hurricane Walaka
Police officers stand outside the home of former President Bill Clinton and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton after a "functional explosive device" was attemptedly delivered to the couple
Turkeyʼs President Erdogan today accused Saudi Arabia of plotting the ʼsavageʼ murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi
Australiaʼs Prime Minister Scott Morrison (C) delivers a national apology to child sex abuse victims in the House of Representatives in Parliament House in Canberra on October 22, 2018. - Morrison on October 22 issued an emotive apology to children who suffered sexual abuse, saying the state had failed to protect them from "evil dark" crimes committed over decades
A derailed train in Yian, eastern Taiwan. At least 17 people died after the derailment
US President Donald Trump waves as he boards Marine One after a "Make America Great" rally in Mesa, Arizona on October 19, 2018. - US President Donald Trump said Friday, October 19, 2018, that he found credible Saudi Arabiaʼs assertion that dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi died as a result of a fight
A Palestinian youth runs past a rolling burning tire during clashes with Israeli forces following a demonstration after the weekly Friday prayers, in the centre of the occupied West Bank city of Hebron
Honduran migrants heading in a caravan to the United States, leave Guatemala City. US President Donald Trump threatened to send the military to close its southern border if Mexico fails to stem the "onslaught" of migrants from Central America, in a series of tweets that blamed Democrats ahead of the midterm elections
Smoke billows following an Israeli air strike around the southern Gaza Strip city of Rafah. Israel launched raids against targets in the Gaza strip in response to rocket fire from the Palestinian territory that caused damage in a southern city, the Israeli army said
Ecuador has issued a list of rules to Julian Assange, the famous resident of the Ecuadorian Embassy in London. The list included cleaning the bathroom, not commenting on foreign political affairs online and taking better care of his cat (pictured). The document states that failure to comply with these rules “could lead to the termination of the diplomatic asylum granted by the Ecuadorian state”
Israeli soldiers hurl tear gas grenades during clashes following Israeli order to shut down the al-Lubban/al-Sawiyeh school near the west bank city of Nablus, 15 October 2018. According to local sources, 20 Palestinians were wounded during clashes as dozens try to defiance the Israeli order to shut down the school
Serbiaʼs Novak Djokovic kisses the trophy after winning his menʼs final singles match against Croatiaʼs Borna Coric at the Shanghai Masters. Djokovic, who has now won four titles this season, will move up one ranking spot to No. 2, pushing Roger Federer back to No. 3
Demonstrators raising red painted hands and a placard reading "we must change the system not the climate" referring to the need to stop climate change during a march in Bordeaux, southwestern France
Spanish Unionist demonstrators carry Spanish flags during a demonstration on Spainʼs National Day in Barcelona
Russia has halted all crewed space flights following the failed launch of the Soyuz MS-10 rocket (pictured). Investigations in to the rocketʼs malfunction are ongoing
People look on at a damaged store after Hurricane Michael passed through Panama City, Florida. A Category 4 storm, with maximum sustained winds of 155 mph, was the most powerful storm ever to hit the Florida Panhandle
The Darul Muttaqien Mosque was the heart of the community for many in Palu. A lot of the victims were inside their homes or at the mosque when the quake struck. Magareb prayer for many, was their last. Paddy Dowling travelled with UK based charity Muslim Aid to the disaster areas of North Sulawesi to witness the scale of Indonesia’s earthquake & tsunami. They are the only British NGO delivering aid out in Palu through local partners
People take part in a candle-light vigil in memory of Bulgarian TV journalist Viktoria Marinova in Ruse
Supporters of Jair Bolsonaro, presidential candidate with the Social Liberal Party, celebrate in front of his house during the general elections in Rio. The far-right congressman, who waxes nostalgically about the dictatorship, won the vote but not an outright victory. The second-round-run-off will be between Bolsoanro and the leftist Workersʼ party Fernando Haddad
Demonstrators hold a banner that reads "freedom of the press, not allowed to be trampled" and "shame on the governments vindictive move" past a symbolic ʼpolitical red lineʼ during a protest after Hong Kong immigration authorities declined a visa renewal for senior Financial Times journalist Victor Mallet, outside the immigration department building in Hong Kong. Hong Kongʼs decision to effectively blacklist a senior Financial Times journalist required an "urgent explanation", the UK said
Congolese doctor Denis Mukwege and Yazidi campaigner Nadia Murad announced as the winners of the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize. The pair were awarded the honour “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.”
Dutch security services expel Russian spies over plot targeting chemical weapons watchdog. This picture shows the four GRU officers who entered the Netherlands at Amsterdamʼs Schiphol Airport on April 10, travelling on official Russian passports. On April 13 they parked a car carrying specialist hacking equipment outside the headquarters of the OPCW in The Hague. At that point the Dutch counter-terrorism officers intervened to disrupt the operation and the four GRU officers were ordered to leave the country

HackerNewsBot debug: Calculated post rank: 93 - Loop: 71 - Rank min: 80 - Author rank: 59

 

this chest-mounted robot feeding arm could stuff your face when you’re too full to move...


Bild/Foto

For those celebrating Thanksgiving today, at some point there will come a time where you is simply too full to move. At this point, the sensible action is to sleep it off before rising later in the day, groggy and disorientated, for a second gorging. But what if technology could help? What if, instead of succumbing to your turkey stupor, some sort of chest-mounted robot arm could lob sweet treats into your open mouth? What a world that would be.

We've not reached this gravy-soaked utopia yet, but researchers from Australia and India have taken us one step closer with "Arm-A-Dine" — a robot arm worn in the middle of the chest that picks food up off the table and conveys it to you or your dining partner's mouth.

The intention isn't to stuff you till you explode, though: Arm-A-Dine is actually a prototype designed to augment the social experience of eating. In a research paper from the Exertion Games Lab at RMIT University in Australia and the Indian Institute of Information Technology Design, researchers explain how most food tech is focused on the preparation of food and not the eating experience.

In a world where researchers warn about a "loneliness epidemic" and many meals are taken with smartphone in hand, Arm-A-Dine is supposed to remind us that eating is a social event.

So, Arm-A-Dine not only grabs food from the table, but also makes a judgement on who to feed it to. A facial recognition app running on an attached smartphone scans your dining partner's expression. If they're smiling, your arm offers them the food; if they're frowning, you get it. (And if the expression is neutral, the arm hovers ambiguously in the middle.)

Arm-A-Dine is not a commercial project (at least not yet) and the limitations of the hardware are obvious. The arms can only grab certain items, have limited degrees of movement, and don't seem to be that accurate when it comes to actually feeding people. (The paper notes: "The gripper stops 10 cm away from the wearer's mouth for safety reasons.")

But as the paper notes, this weird robot arm really does succeed in making eating a more socially-engaging experience. Testers said using Arm-A-Dine made them nostalgic ("it reminded me of my mother feeding me when I was a child") and encouraged them to concentrate on eating ("I had to focus [...] in order to pick it up [food]properly").

Testers even embraced the clumsiness of the arm itself, as it meant they had to work around its limitations and engage with the person opposite, rather than just relaxing and being. As one tester noted: "The most exciting bit was when the third arm moved strangely in the air. It felt as if the arm was teasing us by fluttering between both our mouths."

So remember that next time you sit down to dinner. When your dining partner complains that you really shouldn't "wave food around the table" or "waggle potatoes in my face," just tell them "I'm augmenting the social experience of dining," before silently stuffing your face.

[+]

#foodart #arm #robotic #facialexpression #app #mobilephone #dining #eating #social #video #animatedgif

 

The spread of low-credibility content by social bots


Online misinformation is a threat to a well-informed electorate and undermines democracy. Here, the authors analyse the spread of articles on Twitter, find that bots play a major role in the spread of…
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HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18497219
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The massive spread of digital misinformation has been identified as a major threat to democracies. Communication, cognitive, social, and computer scientists are studying the complex causes for the viral diffusion of misinformation, while online platforms are beginning to deploy countermeasures. Little systematic, data-based evidence has been published to guide these efforts. Here we analyze 14 million messages spreading 400 thousand articles on Twitter during ten months in 2016 and 2017. We find evidence that social bots played a disproportionate role in spreading articles from low-credibility sources. Bots amplify such content in the early spreading moments, before an article goes viral. They also target users with many followers through replies and mentions. Humans are vulnerable to this manipulation, resharing content posted by bots. Successful low-credibility sources are heavily supported by social bots. These results suggest that curbing social bots may be an effective strategy for mitigating the spread of online misinformation.

As we access news from social media^[1]1, we are exposed to a daily dose of false or misleading news reports, hoaxes, conspiracy theories, click-bait headlines, junk science, and even satire^[2]2. We refer to such content collectively as “misinformation.” The financial incentives through advertising are well understood^[3]3, but political motives can be equally powerful^[4]4,[5]5. The massive spread of digital misinformation has been identified as a major global risk^[6]6 and alleged to influence elections and threaten democracies^[7]7. While such claims are hard to prove^[8]8, real harm of disinformation has been demonstrated in health and finance^[9]9,[10]10.

Social and computer scientists are engaged in efforts to study the complex mix of cognitive, social, and algorithmic biases that make us vulnerable to manipulation by online misinformation^[11]11. These include information overload and finite attention^[12]12, novelty of false news^[13]2, the selective exposure^[14]13,[15]14,[16]15 caused by polarized and segregated online social networks^[17]16,[18]17, algorithmic popularity bias^[19]18,[20]19,[21]20, and other cognitive vulnerabilities such as confirmation bias and motivated reasoning^[22]21,[23]22,[24]23.

Abuse of online information ecosystems can both exploit and reinforce these vulnerabilities. While fabricated news are not a new phenomenon^[25]24, the ease with which social media can be manipulated^[26]5 creates novel challenges and particularly fertile grounds for sowing disinformation^[27]25. Public opinion can be influenced thanks to the low cost of producing fraudulent websites and high volumes of software-controlled profiles, known as social bots^[28]10,[29]26. These fake accounts can post content and interact with each other and with legitimate users via social connections, just like real people^[30]27. Bots can tailor misinformation and target those who are most likely to believe it, taking advantage of our tendencies to attend to what appears popular, to trust information in a social setting^[31]28, and to trust social contacts^[32]29. Since earliest manifestations uncovered in 2010^[33]4,[34]5, we have seen influential bots affect online debates about vaccination policies^[35]10 and participate actively in political campaigns, both in the United States^[36]30 and other countries^[37]31,[38]32.

The fight against online misinformation requires a grounded assessment of the relative impact of different mechanisms by which it spreads. If the problem is mainly driven by cognitive limitations, we need to invest in news literacy education; if social media platforms are fostering the creation of echo chambers, algorithms can be tweaked to broaden exposure to diverse views; and if malicious bots are responsible for many of the falsehoods, we can focus attention on detecting this kind of abuse. Here we focus on gauging the latter effect. With few exception^[39]2,[40]30,[41]32,[42]33, the literature about the role played by social bots in the spread of misinformation is largely based on anecdotal or limited evidence; a quantitative understanding of the effectiveness of misinformation-spreading attacks based on social bots is still missing. A large-scale, systematic analysis of the spread of misinformation by social bots is now feasible thanks to two tools developed in our lab: the Hoaxy platform to track the online spread of claims^[43]33 and the Botometer machine learning algorithm to detect social bots^[44]26. Here we examine social bots and how they promote the spread of misinformation through millions of Twitter posts during and following the 2016 US presidential campaign. We find that social bots amplify the spread of misinformation by exposing humans to this content and inducing them to share it.

Our analysis is based on a large corpus of news stories posted on Twitter. Operationally, rather than focusing on individual stories that have been debunked by fact-checkers, we consider low-credibility content, i.e., content from low-credibility sources. Such sources are websites that have been identified by reputable third-party news and fact-checking organizations as routinely publishing various types of low-credibility information (see Methods). There are two reasons for this approach^[45]11. First, these sources have processes for the publication of disinformation: they mimic news media outlets without adhering to the professional standards of journalistic integrity. Second, fact-checking millions of individual articles is unfeasible. As a result, this approach is widely adopted in the literature (see Supplementary Discussion).

We track the complete production of 120 low-credibility sources by crawling their websites and extracting all public tweets with links to their stories. Our own analysis of a sample of these articles confirms that the vast majority of low-credibility content is some type of misinformation (see Methods). We also crawled and tracked the articles published by seven independent fact-checking organizations. The present analysis focuses on the period from mid-May 2016 to the end of March 2017. During this time, we collected 389,569 articles from low-credibility sources and 15,053 articles from fact-checking sources. We further collected from Twitter all of the public posts linking to these articles: 13,617,425 tweets linked to low-credibility sources and 1,133,674 linked to fact-checking sources. See Methods and Supplementary Methods for details.

Spreading patterns and actors

On average, a low-credibility source published approximately 100 articles per week. By the end of the study period, the mean popularity of those articles was approximately 30 tweets per article per week (see Supplementary Fig. [46]1). However, as shown in Fig. [47]1, success is extremely heterogeneous across articles. Whether we measure success by number of posts containing a link (Fig. [48]1a) or by number of accounts sharing an article (Supplementary Fig. [49]2), we find a very broad distribution of popularity spanning several orders of magnitude: while the majority of articles goes unnoticed, a significant fraction goes “viral.” We observe that the popularity distribution of low-credibility articles is almost indistinguishable from that of fact-checking articles, meaning that low-credibility content is equally or more likely to spread virally. This result is similar to that of an analysis based on only fact-checked claims, which found false news to be even more viral than real news^[50]2. The qualitative conclusion is the same: links to low-credibility content reach massive exposure.

Even though low-credibility and fact-checking sources show similar popularity distributions, we observe some distinctive patterns in the spread of low-credibility content. First, most articles by low-credibility sources spread through original tweets and retweets, while few are shared in replies (Fig. [51]2a); this is different from articles by fact-checking sources, which are shared mainly via retweets but also replies (Fig. [52]2b). In other words, the spreading patterns of low-credibility content are less “conversational.” Second, the more a story was tweeted, the more the tweets were concentrated in the hands of few accounts, who act as “super-spreaders” (Fig. [53]2c). This goes against the intuition that, as a story reaches a broader audience organically, the contribution of any individual account or group of accounts should matter less. In fact, a single account can post the same low-credibility article hundreds or even thousands of times (see Supplementary Fig. [54]6). This could suggest that the spread is amplified through automated means.

We hypothesize that the “super-spreaders” of low-credibility content are social bots which are automatically posting links to articles, retweeting other accounts, or performing more sophisticated autonomous tasks, like following and replying to other users. To test this hypothesis, we used Botometer to evaluate the Twitter accounts that posted links to articles from low-credibility sources. For each account we computed a bot score (a number in the unit interval) which can be interpreted as the level of automation of that account. We used a threshold of 0.5 to classify an account as bot or human. Details about the Botometer system and the threshold can be found in Methods. We first considered a random sample of the general population of accounts that shared at least one link to a low-credibility article. Only 6% of accounts in the sample are labeled as bots using this method, but they are responsible for spreading 31% of all tweets linking to low-credibility content, and 34% of all articles from low-credibility sources (Supplementary Table [55]2). We then compared this group with a sample of the top most active accounts (“super-spreaders”), 33% of which have been labeled as bot—over five times as many (details in Supplementary Methods). Figure [56]2d confirms that the super-spreaders are significantly more likely to be bots compared to the general population of accounts who share low-credibility content. Because these results are based on a classification model, it is important to make sure that what we see in Fig. [57]2d is not due to bias in the way Botometer was trained—that the model did not simply learn to assign higher scores to more active accounts. We rule out this competing explanation by showing that higher bot scores cannot be attributed to this kind of bias in the learning model (see Supplementary Fig. [58]16).

Bot strategies

Given this evidence, we submit that bots may play a critical role in driving the viral spread of content from low-credibility sources. To test this question, we examined whether bots tend to get involved at particular times in the spread of popular articles. As shown in Fig. [59]3a, likely bots are more prevalent in the first few seconds after an article is first published on Twitter than at later times. We conjecture that this early intervention exposes many users to low-credibility articles, increasing the chances than an article goes “viral.”

We find that another strategy often used by bots is to mention influential users in tweets that link to low-credibility content. Bots seem to employ this targeting strategy repetitively; for example, a single account mentioned

@realDonaldTrump

in 19 tweets, each linking to the same false claim about millions of votes by illegal immigrants (see details in Supplementary Discussion and Supplementary Fig. [60]7). For a systematic investigation, let us consider all tweets that mention or reply to a user and include a link to a viral article from a low-credibility source in our corpus. The number of followers is often used as a proxy for the influence of a Twitter user. As shown in Fig. [61]3b, in general tweets tend to mention popular people. However, accounts with the largest bot scores tend to mention users with a larger number of followers (median and average). A possible explanation for this strategy is that bots (or rather, their operators) target influential users with content from low-credibility sources, creating the appearance that it is widely shared. The hope is that these targets will then reshare the content to their followers, thus boosting its credibility.

Bot impact

Having found that automated accounts are employed in ways that appear to drive the viral spread of low-credibility articles, let us explore how humans interact with the content shared by bots, which may provide insight into whether and how bots are able to affect public opinion. Figure [62]4a shows who retweets whom: humans do most of the retweeting (Fig. [63]4b), and they retweet articles posted by likely bots almost as much as those by other humans (Fig. [64]4c). This result, which is robust to the choice of threshold used to identify likely humans, suggests that collectively, people do not discriminate between low-credibility content shared by humans versus social bots. It also means that when we observe many accounts exposed to low-credibility information, these are not just bots (re)tweeting it. In fact, we find that the volume of tweets by likely humans scales super-linearly with the volume by likely bots, suggesting that the reach of these articles among humans is amplified by social bots. In other words, each amount of sharing activity by likely bots tends to trigger a disproportionate amount of human engagement. The same amplification effect is not observed for articles from fact-checking sources. Details are presented in Supplementary Discussion (Supplementary Figs. [65]8, [66]9).

Another way to assess the impact of bots in the spread of low-credibility content is to examine their critical role within the diffusion network. Let us focus on the retweet network^[67]33, where nodes are accounts and connections represents retweets of messages with links to stories—just like the networks in Fig. [68]1b, c, but aggregating across all articles from low-credibility sources. We apply a network dismantling procedure^[69]34: we disconnect one node at a time and analyze the resulting decrease in the total volume of retweets and in the total number of unique articles. The more these quantities are reduced by disconnecting a small number of nodes, the more critical those nodes are in the network. We prioritize accounts to disconnect based on bot score and, for comparison, also based on retweeting activity and influence. Further details can be found in the Methods. Unsurprisingly, Fig. [70]5 shows that influential nodes are most critical. The most influential nodes are unlikely to be bots, however. Disconnecting nodes with high bot score is the second-best strategy for reducing low-credibility articles (Fig. [71]5a). For reducing overall post volume, this strategy performs well when about 10% of nodes are disconnected (Fig. [72]5b). Disconnecting active nodes is not as efficient a strategy for reducing low-credibility articles. These results show that bots are critical in the diffusion network, and that targeting them would significantly improve the quality of information in the network. The spread of links to low-credibility content can be virtually eliminated by disconnecting a small percentage of accounts that are most likely to be bots.

Finally, we compared the extent to which social bots disseminate content from different low-credibility sources. We considered the most popular sources in terms of median and aggregate article posts, and measured the bot scores of the accounts that most actively spread their content. As shown in Fig. [73]6, one site ([74]beforeitsnews.com) stands out for the high degree of automation, but other popular low-credibility sources also have many likely bots among their promoters. The dissemination of content from satire sites like The Onion and fact-checking websites does not display the same level of automation; it appears to be more organic.

Our analysis provides quantitative empirical evidence of the key role played by social bots in the spread of low-credibility content. Relatively few accounts are responsible for a large share of the traffic that carries misinformation. These accounts are likely bots, and we uncovered two manipulation strategies they use. First, bots are particularly active in amplifying content in the very early spreading moments, before an article goes “viral.” Second, bots target influential users through replies and mentions. People are vulnerable to these kinds of manipulation, in the sense that they retweet bots who post low-credibility content almost as much as they retweet other humans. As a result, bots amplify the reach of low-credibility content, to the point that it is statistically indistinguishable from that of fact-checking articles. Successful low-credibility sources in the United States, including those on both ends of the political spectrum, are heavily supported by social bots. Social media platforms are beginning to acknowledge these problems and deploy countermeasures, although their effectiveness is hard to evaluate^[75]11,[76]25,[77]35.

The present findings complement the recent work by Vosoughi et al.^[78]2 who argue that bots alone do not entirely explain the success of false news. Their analysis is based on a small subset of articles that are fact-checked, whereas the present work considers a much broader set of articles from low-credibility sources, most of which are not fact-checked. In addition, the analysis of Vosoughi et al.^[79]2 does not consider an important mechanism by which bots can amplify the spread of an article, namely, by resharing links originally posted by human accounts. Because of these two methodological differences, the present analysis provides new evidence about the role played by bots.

Our results are robust with respect to various choices. First, using a more restrictive criterion for selecting low-credibility sources, based on a consensus among several news and fact-checking organizations (see Methods), yields qualitatively similar results, leading to the same conclusions. In addition, the findings are not driven by any single source associated with a large portion of the tweet volume. Second, our analysis about active spreaders of low-credibility content being likely bots is robust with respect to the activity threshold used to identify the most active spreaders. Furthermore, bot scores are uncorrelated with account activity volume. Third, the conclusions are not affected by the use of different bot score thresholds to separate social bots and human accounts. Details about all of these robustness analyses can be found in the Supplementary Discussion (Supplementary Figs. [80]10–[81]15).

Our findings demonstrate that social bots are an effective tool to manipulate social media. While the present study focuses on the spread of low-credibility content, such as false news, conspiracy theories, and junk science, similar bot strategies may be used to spread other types of malicious content, such as malware. Although our spreading data are collected from Twitter, there is no reason to believe that the same kind of abuse is not taking place on other digital platforms as well. In fact, viral conspiracy theories spread on Facebook^[82]36 among the followers of pages that, like social bots, can easily be managed automatically and anonymously. While the difficulty to access spreading data on platforms like Facebook is a concern, the growing popularity of ephemeral social media like Snapchat may make future studies of this type of abuse all but impossible.

The results presented here suggest that curbing social bots may be an effective strategy for mitigating the spread of low-credibility content, and that the bot score might provide a useful signal to prioritize accounts for further review. Progress in this direction may be accelerated through partnerships between social media platforms and academic research^[83]11. For example, our lab and others are developing machine learning algorithms to detect social bots^[84]10,[85]26,[86]27. The deployment of such tools is fraught with peril, however. While platforms have the right to enforce their terms of service, which forbid impersonation and deception, algorithms do make mistakes. Even a single false-positive error leading to the suspension of a legitimate account may foster valid concerns about censorship. This justifies current human-in-the-loop solutions which unfortunately do not scale with the volume of abuse that is enabled by software. It is therefore imperative to support research both on improved abuse detection algorithms and on countermeasures that take into account the complex interplay between the cognitive and technological factors that favor the spread of misinformation^[87]37.

An alternative strategy would be to employ CAPTCHAs^[88]38, challenge–response tests to determine whether a user is human. CAPTCHAs have been deployed widely and successfully to combat email spam and other types of online abuse. Their use to limit automatic posting or resharing of news links could help stem bot abuse by increasing its cost, but also add undesirable friction to benign applications of automation by legitimate entities, such as news media and emergency response coordinators. These are hard trade-offs that must be studied carefully as we contemplate ways to address the fake news epidemics.

The present study focuses on the role of social bots in the spread of low-credibility content. These kinds of bots are often deceptive. For example, none of the ten Twitter accounts most active at retweeting articles in the core of the misinformation network during the study period identified themselves as bots^[89]33. One question that has not been addressed is whether similar patterns of amplification might be observed in the spread of content from legitimate, high-quality news sources. Mainstream media do use automated accounts to post news feeds, although these bots do not deceptively impersonate humans. While preliminary analysis suggests that mainstream media do not display the same systematic bot support observed for low-credibility sources (Supplementary Fig. [90]8), the use of bots to promote legitimate news content deserves further investigation.

Finally, the present study focuses on US sources during the period preceding and following the 2016 US presidential election. It will be important to explore whether bot manipulation of social media platforms is concentrated around major electoral events in the United States and other countries.

Data about articles shared on Twitter were collected through Hoaxy, an open platform developed at Indiana University to track the spread of claims and fact checking^[91]33. A search engine, interactive visualizations, and open-source software are freely available ([92]hoaxy.iuni.iu.edu). The data are accessible through a public application program interface (API). Further details are presented in Supplementary Methods.

The collection period for the present analysis extends from mid-May 2016 until the end of March 2017. During this time, we collected 389,569 articles from 120 low-credibility sites. We also tracked 15,053 stories published by independent fact-checking organizations, such as [93]snopes.com, [94]politifact.com, and [95]factcheck.org.

The list of low-credibility sources was obtained by merging several lists compiled by third-party news and fact-checking organizations or experts. The collection started with 71 sites and 49 more were added in mid-December 2016. The full list of sources and their provenance is reported in Supplementary Table [96]1. Many low-credibility sources label their content as satirical, and viral satire is sometimes mistaken for real news. For these reasons, satire sites are not excluded from the list of low-credibility sources. However, our findings are robust with respect to this choice. The Onion is the satirical source with the highest total volume of shares. We repeated our analyses of most viral articles (e.g., Fig. [97]3a) with articles from [98]theonion.com excluded and the results were not affected.

We also repeated the analysis using a more restrictive criterion for selecting low-credibility sources, based on a consensus among three or more news and fact-checking organizations. This yields 327,840 articles (86% of the total) from 65 low-credibility sources, also listed in Supplementary Methods, where we show that the results are robust with respect to these different source selection criteria.

Our analysis does not require a complete list of low-credibility sources, but does rely on the assumption that many articles published by these sources can be classified as some kind of misinformation or unsubstantiated information. To validate this assumption, we checked the content of a random sample of articles. For the purpose of this verification, we adopted a definition of “misinformation” that follows industry convention and includes the following classes: fabricated content, manipulated content, imposter content, false context, misleading content, false connection, and satire^[99]39. To these seven categories we also added articles whose claims could not be verified. We found that fewer that 15% of articles could be verified. More details are available in Supplementary Methods (Supplementary Figs. [100]3, [101]4).

Using the filtering endpoint of Twitter’s public streaming API, we collected 13,617,425 public posts that included links to articles from low-credibility sources and 1,133,674 public posts linking to fact checks. This is the complete set of tweets linking to these articles in the study period, and not a sample (see Supplementary Methods for details). We extracted metadata about the source of each link, the account that shared it, the original poster in case of retweet or quoted tweet, and any users mentioned or replied to in the tweet.

We transformed links to canonical URLs to merge different links referring to the same article. This happens mainly due to shortening services (44% links are redirected) and extra parameters (34% of URLs contain analytics tracking parameters), but we also found websites that use duplicate domains and snapshot services. Canonical URLs were obtained by resolving redirection and removing analytics parameters.

In the targeting analysis (Fig. [102]3b), we exclude mentions of sources using the pattern “via @screen_name.”

Botometer scores

The bot score of Twitter accounts is computed using the Botometer classifier which evaluates the extent to which an account exhibits similarity to the characteristics of social bots^[103]26. The system is based on a supervised machine learning algorithm leveraging more than a thousand features extracted from public data and metadata about Twitter accounts. These features include various descriptors of information diffusion networks, user metadata, friend statistics, temporal patterns of activity, part-of-speech, and sentiment analysis. The classifier is trained using publicly available datasets of tens of thousands of Twitter users that include both humans and bots of varying sophistication. The Botometer system is available through a public API ([104]botometer.iuni.iu.edu). It has also been employed in other studies^[105]2,[106]40 and is widely adopted, serving hundreds of thousand requests daily.

For the present analysis, we use the Twitter Search API to collect up to 200 of an account’s most recent tweets and up to 100 of the most recent tweets mentioning the account. From these data we extract the features used by the Botometer classifier. We use logistic calibration to make the bot scores calculated by the classifier easier to interpret as confidence levels (see Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. [107]5).

There are many types of bots and humans using different levels of automation. Accordingly, Botometer provides a score rather than a binary classification. Nevertheless, the model can effectively discriminate between human and bot accounts of different nature; fivefold cross-validation yields an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 94%^[108]26. (An AUC value of 50% indicates random accuracy and 100% means perfect accuracy.) When a binary classification is needed, we use a bot score threshold of 0.5 which maximizes accuracy^[109]26. See Supplementary Methods and Discussion for further details about bot classification and the robustness of results based on a bot score threshold.

Retweet network

The network studied in the dismantling analysis (Fig. [110]5) is based on retweets with links to articles from low-credibility sources, posted before the 2016 US presidential election (16 May–7 November 2016). The network has 227,363 nodes (accounts) and 816,453 directed edges. Each edge is weighted by the number of retweets between the same pair of accounts. When an account is disconnected, all of its incoming and outgoing edges are removed. When we disconnect a retweeting node i that was in turn retweeted by some node j, only i is removed because in the Twitter metadata, each retweet connects directly to the account that originated the tweet. Given the directionality of edges, retweeting activity is measured by node in-strength centrality (weighted in-degree) and influence by out-strength centrality (weighted out-degree).

Code availability

Code used to carry out the analyses in this manuscript is available on Github ([111]github.com/IUNetSci/HoaxyBots). Hoaxy is an open-source project and all system software is public ([112]github.com/IUNetSci). Reasonable additional requests and questions about code can be directed to the corresponding author.

There are two data sources analyzed during the current study: Hoaxy for data about article diffusion, and Botometer for data about Twitter bot scores. Further details are available in Supplementary Methods. Datasets used to carry out the analyses in this manuscript are available on Zenodo ([113]https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1402267). Additionally, data about article diffusion and bot scores are available through the public Hoaxy API ([114]hoaxy.iuni.iu.edu) and the public Botometer API ([115]botometer.iuni.iu.edu), respectively. Reasonable additional requests and questions about data or APIs can be directed to the corresponding author.

[116]Download references

We are grateful to Ben Serrette and Valentin Pentchev of the Indiana University Network Science Institute ([117]iuni.iu.edu), as well as Lei Wang for supporting the development of the Hoaxy platform. Pik-Mai Hui assisted with the dismantling analysis. Clayton A. Davis developed the Botometer API. Nic Dias provided assistance with claim verification. We are also indebted to Twitter for providing data through their API. C.S. thanks the Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research ([118]cnets.indiana.edu) for the hospitality during his visit at the Indiana University School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering. He was supported by the China Scholarship Council. G.L.C. was supported by IUNI. K.-C.Y. was supported by the National Science Foundation (award 1735095). The development of the Botometer platform was supported in part by DARPA (grant W911NF-12-1-0037). The development of the Hoaxy platform was supported in part by the Democracy Fund (grant R-RR-201705-01961). A.F. and F.M. were supported in part by the James S. McDonnell Foundation (grant 220020274) and the National Science Foundation (award 1101743). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our [119]Terms and [120]Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

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HackerNewsBot debug: Calculated post rank: 82 - Loop: 427 - Rank min: 80 - Author rank: 55

 
Brendan O'Neill: The #Terrifying #Reality #of #Social #Media #Censorship

Spiked Magazine editor Brendan O'Neill joins Yaron Brook to discuss the importance of Free speech and whether Government should Regulate Facebook? Moderated by Kate Andrews from the Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA).

 

Lean impact: How to apply lean startup principles to non-profits for social good


#apply #good #impact #lean #non #principles #profits #social #startup

 

Man mag es kaum glauben, aber in Memo Village gibt es jetzt sogar einen Festnetzanschluss





Es ist natürlich nur ein VoIP-Telefon, aber so können Telefonate zum Festnetztarif geführt werden. Es hat ja nicht jeder eine Mobilnetzflatrate 😄

Stichworte: #Internet #Social #LTE #VoIP #Wohnen #Bauwagen #Bauwägen #Wagenplatz #Bauwagenplatz #Fotografie #Foto

 
Another good take on the "Nothing to hide" argument by Bruce Schneier:
For social norms to change, people need to deviate from these inherited norms. People need the space to try alternate ways of living without risking arrest or social ostracization. People need to be able to read critiques of those norms without anyone’s knowledge, discuss them without their opinions being recorded, and write about their experiences without their names attached to their words. People need to be able to do things that others find distasteful, or even immoral. The minority needs protection from the tyranny of the majority.
https://www.wired.com/story/mcsweeneys-excerpt-the-right-to-experiment/

#society #culture #privacy #surveillance #tyranny #media #censorship #politics #nothingtohide #social #norm #norms #socialnorms #freedom #community #minority #minorities #majority

 

Another #social #psychology classic bites the dust – meta-analysis finds little evidence for the Macbeth effect – Research Digest • http://bit.ly/2Q6n8z1


 

"16 MBit/s - ach neee... leider doch nicht. Keine Leitung frei." 😱


Da ich aber auch hier in meinem kleinen Reich recherchieren, und natürlich auch in den sozialen Netzwerken posten möchte, habe ich mich weiter umgehört.




Es gib sehr viele Anbieter und noch mehr Angebote / Tarife. Da hier auch LTE zur Verfügung steht, ging dann meine Entscheidung aber recht schnell. Bei einem Vergleich sagte mir dann der Tarif von Vodafon am meisten zu.

Für rund 35 Euro / Monat bekomme ich ein Datenvolumen von 50 GB bei einer bisher durchschnittlichen Datentransferrate von 16 MBit/s im Down- und Upload.

Einziger Wermutstropfen: Wenn das Datenvolumen verbraucht ist, soll die Datentransferrate fast gegen Null gehen. Ich muss also zusehen, dass ich mit meinem Datenvolumen auskomme 😉

Stichworte: #Internet #Social #LTE #Wohnen #Bauwagen #Bauwägen #Wagenplatz #Bauwagenplatz #Fotografie #Foto

 
Chers "amis", vous avez peut-être l'impression que je fais beaucoup de choses et que tout va bien pour moi, mais en fait, je ne travaille pas assez du tout.

Alors je sollicite votre aide pour travailler plus: #jechercheunjob

J'ai mis mon site à jour et vous y verrez plusieurs choses que je propose qui peuvent intéresser des particuliers ou des structures de type MJC, foyer rural, centre socio-culturel ou CE d'entreprise. N'hésitez pas à parler de moi, je suis une personne sympathique et compétente, mais un peu en galère aussi.

http://www.guillemettesilvand.fr/

MERCI <3 <3

#artiste #photographe #formatrice #accompagnante #coach #développementpersonnel #social #socioculturel #culture #secrétariat #animation #atelier #enfance #éducation
Accueil

 

Domestic actors spreading false information on social media


Bild/Foto

#actors #columbiauniversity #domestic #fakenews #false #information #jonathanalbright #media #msm #oannewsroom #russia #social #spreading
posted by pod_feeder
Domestic actors spreading false information on social media

 
Neue besser, der Podcast Folge: Pleroma #S01E05
Das freie dezentrale soziale Netzwerk Pleroma macht den Anfang in unserer Kategorie "Twitter-ähnliche" Netzwerke. Oder wie man sie eigentlich nennen sollte "Microblogging" Netzwerke. Zu Gast ist lain,der Pleroma erfunden hat und kontinuierlich mit anderen zusammen weiterentwickelt

https://besser.demkontinuum.de/2018/11/pleroma-s01e05 #pleroma #Fediverse #Federation #social networks #Erlang #Elixir #decentralize #DecentralizeIT #WeareFamily #FLOSS #OSS #Mastodon #Android #iOS

 
Neue besser, der Podcast Folge: Pleroma #S01E05
Das freie dezentrale soziale Netzwerk Pleroma macht den Anfang in unserer Kategorie "Twitter-ähnliche" Netzwerke. Oder wie man sie eigentlich nennen sollte "Microblogging" Netzwerke. Zu Gast ist lain,der Pleroma erfunden hat und kontinuierlich mit anderen zusammen weiterentwickelt

https://besser.demkontinuum.de/2018/11/pleroma-s01e05 #pleroma #Fediverse #Federation #social networks #Erlang #Elixir #decentralize #DecentralizeIT #WeareFamily #FLOSS #OSS #Mastodon #Android #iOS

 

Neue besser, der Podcast Folge: Pleroma #S01E05


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https://besser.demkontinuum.de/2018/11/pleroma-s01e05 #pleroma #Fediverse #Federation #social networks #Erlang #Elixir #decentralize #DecentralizeIT #WeareFamily #FLOSS #OSS #Mastodon #Android #iOS

 

Limiting Social Media Decreases Loneliness and Depression


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Article word count: 31

HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18420121
Posted by T-A (karma: 8037)
Post stats: Points: 105 - Comments: 27 - 2018-11-10T05:37:04Z

\#HackerNews #and #decreases #depression #limiting #loneliness #media #social
Article content:

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How Right-Wing Social Media Site Gab Got Back Online


#back #business #gab #media #online #right #site #social #wing

 

Apple’s Social Network


HN Discussion: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18381627
Posted by ingve (karma: 90332)
Post stats: Points: 132 - Comments: 104 - 2018-11-05T12:02:06Z

\#HackerNews #apples #network #social
Article content:




While the saying goes that “No news is good news,” in the case of Apple it turns out that “News about no news is bad news.” From [1]Bloomberg:
Apple Inc. shares had their worst day since 2014 amid concerns that growth in its powerhouse product, the iPhone, is slowing. In the fiscal fourth quarter, Apple said iPhone unit sales barely grew from a year earlier, even though new flagship devices came out in the period. At the same time, Apple said it would stop providing unit sales for iPhones, iPads, and Macs in fiscal 2019, a step toward becoming more of a services business. While some pundits praised the move as a way to highlight a potent new business model, many analysts complained it was an attempt to hide the pain of a stagnant smartphone market.

Apple has long been an exception in the smartphone space when it comes to reporting unit sales, so deciding not to is not that out of the ordinary; Apple, though, has always positioned itself as the extraordinary alternative — [2]the best — and that approach paid off for years with sales numbers that were worth bragging about.
A History of iPhone Unit and Revenue Growth

The reality, though, is that unit sales in isolation have indeed misrepresented Apple’s business for the last several years; specifically, they have underestimated it. Consider the last six years of iPhone revenue growth and unit growth:

[3]iPhone unit growth and revenue growth over time

iPhone unit growth and revenue were obviously highly correlated in the early years of the iPhone, when the only price difference in the line concerned the amount of storage on the flagship device. As Apple started keeping older models in the lineup, though, revenue growth was a bit slower than unit growth due to a slowly declining average selling price.

Then the iPhone 6 happened: not only was the “big-screen iPhone” stupendously popular — and, it should be noted, was the first phone sold at launch on all of China’s mobile carriers — it also, for the first time, included a configuration — the $749 iPhone 6 Plus — that had a higher base price than the iPhone’s traditional $649. The result was revenue growth that, for the first time, significantly outpaced unit growth.

The iPhone 6S was the opposite story: while Apple thought that iPhone 6 sales figures represented the new normal, in reality Apple had pulled forward a huge number of flagship phone buyers. Ultimately the company had to take a $2 billion inventory write-off on the iPhone 6S after over-forecasting sales; meanwhile, older model phones (including the iPhone 6) were still selling well, so again unit growth outpaced revenue growth.

It turned out, though, that the 6S was the new normal: iPhone unit sales have been basically flat ever since:

[4]iPhone unit sales over time

What has changed is Apple’s pricing: the iPhone 7 Plus cost $20 more than the iPhone 6S Plus. Then, last year, came the big jump: both the iPhones 8 and 8 Plus cost more than their predecessors ($50 and $30 respectively); more importantly, they were no longer the flagship. That appellation belonged to the $999 iPhone X, and [5]given how many Apple fans will only buy the best, average selling price skyrocketed:

[6]iPhone average selling price over time

Still, even though unit growth had been stagnant for a full three years (not just the last year, as many reports, including the one above, incorrectly stated), reporting those numbers helped Apple tell its story: after all, you needed unit numbers to calculate the average selling price.

What the reports are right about, though, is that unit sales going forward are absolutely a story Apple would prefer to avoid: it is very unlikely that units will grow, and while Apple pushed pricing even higher with the iPhone XS Max, it probably can’t go much further, which means it is likely that the average selling price-based revenue growth story is drawing to an end as well.
Today at Apple

To this point I have focused on the iPhone, and for good reason: last quarter it made up 59% of Apple’s revenue; for the company’s holiday quarter it will likely approach 70%. However, the company will also stop reporting unit sales for Macs and iPads. This came on the heels of a product announcement last week where Apple introduced a new MacBook Air, Mac Mini, and iPads Pro; all were priced significantly higher than their predecessors.

This isn’t a surprise: the Mac line has been increasing in price for years, while the iPads Pro are balanced by [7]a strong entry-level product that starts at $329. The reality of both the Mac and iPads Pro are that they are niche products, and niche customers are willing to pay higher prices for products that better meet their needs.^[8]1

What was more interesting about last week’s event though, and which casts more light on Apple’s new growth story than the products announced, were the ten minutes in the middle devoted to Apple Retail.

[9]IFrame

This is how Apple CEO Tim Cook introduced the segment:
Now there are ways that Apple aims to inspire creativity in our users, including in our stores. The mission of our stores has always been to enrich the lives of our customers by educating and inspiring them to go even further. One of the new ways that we’re taking their creativity even further is through our Today at Apple sessions.

Today at Apple was [10]announced with a press release in April, 2017, and received its first on-stage mention during the [11]iPhone X keynote. Last week’s presentation, though, really highlighted how Today at Apple is perhaps the best way to understand the way Apple thinks about its growth opportunities going forward. Senior Vice President of Retail Angela Ahrendts explained:
We started with the things that are core to Apple’s DNA, things people most use their devices for and trust us to teach them, like photography, music, gaming, and app development. And as Apple continues to develop curriculum like Everyone can Code and Everyone can Create, we embed these lessons and techniques into our Today at Apple programming for all customers, including educators and entrepreneurs. And we hold all of our sessions in all 505 retail locations, like at Apple Cotai Central in Macau, which opened a few months ago. Here, customers are attending a session called Photo Walks, where they learn new features, like portrait lighting and depth control, while exploring the city together in a real social way… 

 And as we continue to push the design of our flagships to be even greater gathering places where everyone is welcome, we’re also creating global platforms for local talent. Photographers, musicians, developers, and artists share their creative gifts… 

 Since the launch of Today at Apple, only 18 months ago, we have held over 18,000 sessions a week, attended by millions of curious creatives around the world. And with the newest release of the Apple Store app, we’ve made it even easier for you to find out what’s happening near you. Just tap on the Sessions tab and you’ll see a spotlight of the newest Today at Apple sessions in your city. It will also recommend sessions based on the products that you own, and signature programs like Music Labs, Kids Hour, and Photo Walks.

What is striking about Today at Apple is the scale of its ambition combined with its price: free. Of course that is not true in practice, because one needs an Apple device to realistically participate (and an Apple ID to even sign up), but that raises the question as to what Apple customers are paying for when they buy an Apple product? Apple’s point in highlighting Today at Apple is that customer’s are not simply buying an iPhone or an iPad or a Mac, but rather buying into an ongoing relationship with Apple.

More broadly, this explains CFO Luca Maestri reasoning [12]on the earnings call for no longer reporting unit sales:
Third, starting with the December quarter, we will no longer be providing unit sales data for iPhone, iPad and Mac. As we have stated many times, our objective is to make great products and services that enrich people’s lives, and to provide an unparalleled customer experience so that our users are highly satisfied, loyal and engaged.

“Engaged” is an interesting choice of words, as engagement is an objective normally associated with social networks like Facebook. The reasoning is obvious: the more engaged users are, the more they use a social network, which means the more ads they can be shown. Social networks accomplish this by aggregating content from suppliers as well as users themselves, and continually tweaking algorithms in an attempt to keep you swiping and tapping, and coming back to swipe and tap some more.

This is a world that has always been foreign to Apple: its past attempts at facilitating social interaction on its platforms are memorable only as the butt of jokes (iTunes Ping anyone?). This isn’t a surprise: Apple’s culture and approach to products [13]is antithetical to the culture and approach necessary to create and grow a traditional social network. Apple wants total control and to release as perfect a product it can; a social network requires an iterative approach that is designed to deal with constant variability and edge cases.

This, though, is why Today at Apple is compelling, particular Ahrendts’ reference to bringing people together in a “real social way” — and she could not have [14]emphasized the word “real” more strongly. Apple is in effect trying to build a social network in the real world, facilitated and controlled by Apple, and betting that customers will continue to pay to gain access.
Apple’s Average Revenue per User

To be perfectly clear, I am not arguing that Today at Apple is the answer to a saturated smartphone market or Apple reaching the limits of price increases. The company is clearly relying on “Services” revenue, which mostly means App Store revenue, a huge portion of which comes from in-app purchases for games, as well as a growing number of subscriptions, some provided by Apple (like Apple Music), but most by 3rd parties.

What this framing of a “real world social network” does provide, though, is insight into where it is Apple’s new reporting falls short. It is all well and good that Apple will now separate Services revenue and its associated cost-of-sales starting next quarter; more insight into Apple’s growth driver is clearly appropriate.

What is missing, though, is the equivalent of unit sales for Services, specifically, the number of active customers Apple has, and the associated revenue per user. This is the exact metric that matters to social media companies, and to the extent that Apple’s growth is derived from continually monetizing its existing user base over time, it makes sense here as well.

To be sure, an accurate number would very much include device revenue: I laid out in [15]Apple’s Middle Age that the company’s growth was based on getting more money from its existing user base through higher average selling prices, selling more devices (i.e. Apple Watch, AirPods, HomePod, etc.), and increased services revenue; to the extent Apple is correct that focusing on only devices misses the story, it is also correct that focusing on only Services is misleading as well.
Apple’s Priorities

Unfortunately Cook already declared on [16]another earnings call last February that this number isn’t coming:
We’re not releasing a user number, because we think that the proper way to look at it is to look at active devices. It’s also the one that is the most accurate for us to measure. And so that’s our thinking behind there.

There are two problems with this: first, while an active devices number is helpful, the 1.3 billion number that Apple announced on that February earnings call was the first in two years; it has not been updated since. Second, the number of active devices may be easier for Apple to measure, but it simply isn’t as valuable to investors as the number of active users for reasons Cook stated himself last week:
Our installed base is growing at double digits, and that’s probably a much more significant metric for us from an ecosystem point of view and customer loyalty, et cetera. The second thing is this is a little bit like if you go to the market and you push your cart up to the cashier and she says, or he says how many units you have in there? It doesn’t matter a lot how many units there are in there in terms of the overall value of what’s in the cart.

It’s not just “overall value”, though: it’s how many customers there are total, and the ways in which their cart is changing — i.e. what is the installed base, and what is the rate of growth that Cook is referring to?

Unfortunately Apple appears to be most concerned with the top and bottom line. Maestri said just before Cook’s comment:
At the end of the day, we make our decisions from a financial standpoint to try and optimize our revenue and our gross margin dollars, and that we think is the focus that is in the best interest of our investors.

It is certainly difficult for anyone, particularly Apple’s investors, to complain about Apple’s revenue and gross margin dollars, going on many years now. For all those years, though, said revenue and profit were based on unit sales.

Now Apple is arguing that unit sales is the wrong way to understand its business, but refuses to provide the numbers that underly the story it wants to tell. It is very fair for investors to be skeptical: both as to whether Apple can every really be valued independently from device sales, and also if the company, for all its fine rhetoric and stage presentations, is truly prioritizing what drives the revenue and profit instead of revenue and profit themselves. I do think the answer is the former; I just wish Apple would show it with its reporting.

References

Visible links
1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-02/apple-silence-on-iphone-unit-sales-sparks-concern-shows-future
2. https://stratechery.com/2014/best/
3. https://stratechery.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Screen-Shot-2018-11-05-at-5.43.32-AM.png
4. https://stratechery.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Screen-Shot-2018-11-05-at-5.44.14-AM.png
5. https://stratechery.com/2018/the-iphone-franchise/
6. https://stratechery.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Screen-Shot-2018-11-05-at-6.02.33-AM.png
7. https://www.apple.com/shop/buy-ipad/ipad-9-7
8. https://stratechery.com/2018/apples-social-network/#footnote_0_3790
9. https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/bfHEnw6Rm-4?rel=0&showinfo=0&start=2013
10. https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2017/04/today-at-apple-bringing-new-experiences-to-every-apple-store/
11. https://youtu.be/P_JY6tl4KyY?t=589
12. https://seekingalpha.com/article/4217359-apple-aapl-q4-2018-results-earnings-call-transcript?part=single
13. https://stratechery.com/2016/apples-organizational-crossroads/
14. https://youtu.be/bfHEnw6Rm-4?t=2154
15. https://stratechery.com/2018/apples-middle-age/
16. https://seekingalpha.com/article/4142447-apples-aapl-ceo-tim-cook-q1-2018-results-earnings-call-transcript?part=single

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Article: Private messages from 81,000 hacked Facebook® accounts for sale.


by Andrei Zakharov (BBC Russian Service).
The perpetrators told the BBC Russian Service that they had details from a total of 120 million accounts, which they were attempting to sell, although there are reasons to be sceptical about that figure.
Facebook said its security had not been compromised and the data had probably been obtained through malicious browser extensions. [...]

Tags: #fb #facebook #social #networking #itsec #security #hacking #cracking #web #browser #privacy #datadump #leak #bbc #fbsaler #digitalshadows #private #conversation #disclosure #loki #bot #trojan #password #stealing

 
No deseo copiar la leyenda del reto, así que simplemente muestro esta imágen de una excelente película para entender la "historia humana".

Bild/Foto

\#capital #classes #social #history #labour #workers #land #cine #trabajadores #historia #cambio #clases